Basic parameter in the design, planning, and architecture of these facilities is to analyze situations behavior of the people that use them, in particular their reaction in emergency situations. Due to huge involvement of larger gathering in such structures and tragic events which have resulted in the massive loss of life, modelling, simulation and understanding of pedestrian movement in emergency egress situations has become essential.
Recent Crowd Stampedes
May 12, 2018: One person is killed and 20 more are injured during the Sierra Leone presidential inauguration of Julius Maada Bio when a group of spectators trying to enter the venue through the wrong passage were forced back by police, causing the stampede
May 14, 2018: At least ten people died and a further 50 were injured in a stampede while collecting alms before Ramadan in Chittagong, Bangladesh
May 27, 2018: At least 58 people are injured in the Bihar Sharif train station after an apparent earthquake caused panic among the passengers.
September 9, 2018: One person was killed and 40 were injured in Antananarivo, Madagascar during the 2019 Africa Cup of Nations qualifier between Senegal and Madagascar, after a group of spectators became trapped between a closed entrance gate and an incoming crowd.
September 17, 2018: Five people are killed, and seven injured, leaving the 2018 CAF Champions League Quarterfinal Match between Primeiro de Agosto and TP Mazembe in Luanda, Angola.
December 8, 2018: Six people were killed and dozens more injured in a human stampede as frantic concertgoers tried to exit a packed Lanterna Azzurra club in Corinaldo, Italy, after pepper spray was fired inside the club
Crowd Management Solution
Recent examples of stampede has presented an unfortunate, albeit an interesting case study. The fact that it is actions of crowds’ uncontrolled movement while evacuation leads to chaos. Stampedes are caused both by real hazards, such as earthquake, fire, brawls or by behavior of the crowd while egressing way out of the stadium.
Crowds pose an interesting example of a complex system in which emergent behavior is observed out of the interaction of many individual agents. This behavior can serve as an very important input parameter in the safe design of sports and other stadia, especially in the case of possible emergency situations.
Our team at @ASCELA uses advance tools like VISSIM as a standard multi modal traffic micro simulation software package to develop simulation scenarios. The software models movement of individual vehicles through a road network, their interaction with each other and the surrounding infrastructure.
VISSIM can provide modelling outputs such as delay and queue lengths at intersections, Level of Service (LOS) and journey times through the network. Pedestrian modelling in VISSIM is also possible which gives insights of access times to facilities, crowding, physical barriers and pinch points in a development.
One of the projects where our experts applied micro simulation-modeling for network performance analysis was for the study for ingress and egress of spectators in the stadium in India. The objective was to develop adequate circulations with regards to width, concourse and holding areas to cater to the peak spectator capacity, along with convenient accessibility for evacuation of the spectators.